The answer to each question in the 10x table is the number we are multiplying 10 by, with a zero added. Thinking about place value helps us to learn our 10x table because however many lots of 10 we have, we write that number in the Tens column and write a 0 in the Ones column to show we don't have any extra ones. If we have 10, 11 or 12 lots of 10 we can't write two digits in the Tens column but that's okay, we just write 1 in the Hundreds column because 10 lots of 10 is 100.
Once we know the 10x table we can use that to calculate the answers to the 5x table. For example, if we know that 8 x 10 = 80 then 8 x 5 will be half of 80 because 5 is half of 10, so 8 x 5 = 40.